Diabetes is a complex disease associated with several changes in the gastrointestinal tract with symptoms such as bloating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain. While the exact pathogenesis of these symptoms is still not clearly understood, there is an increasing interest in the role of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and its neurotransmitters in this disease state. Recent studies have elucidated changes in inhibitory and excitatory neurons associated with the ENS as well as oxidative stress, advanced glycation end products, apoptosis, and overall neuronal loss. Inflammation-associated neurodegeneration can lead to motility problems in diabetic patients. Potential therapy includes antioxidants to prevent or treat these problems.