Pain represents a foremost feature of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS). Symptoms include ipsilateral upper extremity pain, sensory loss, shoulder and neck discomfort, arm paresis or edema, headache, and even sympathetic nervous system impairment.
This presentation will cover an evidence-based review of the classification, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic measures, and surgical treatment of NTOS with a focus on nonoperative therapies such as physical modalities, pharmacological therapies, and the more contemporary, and minimally invasive, cervicothoracic intramuscular treatments with botulinum toxin.
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