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The International Association for the Study of Pain defines pain as being both a noxious sensory and emotional experience, so psychology is actually integral to the experience of...
Beth Darnall is a Clinical Associate Professor at Stanford University School of Medicine, Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, in Palo Alto, California.
It turns out that psychological factors strongly correlate with prescription for opioids and also for opioid dose. Some of those factors are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder...
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